11th Annual International Conference on Rights of Nature for Peace and Sustainable Development - 12 to 14 December 2022, United Nations Conference organized under the aegis of the United Nations Program for Harmony with Nature
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Below the Call for Contributions (Call for Abstracts).
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Call for Contributions 2022:
International Annual Conference on the Rights of Nature
In the frame of the 14th GENEVA FORUM, December 12-16, 2022
United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland
|Monday 12 December aftermoon, Tuesday 13 December whole day and Wednesday 14 december morning, 2022
from 09:00 to 18:00
Tuesday evening, de 19:00 à 23:00 : Networking Dinner of Rights of Nature Networks
|FREE ENTRANCE UNDER SUBSCRIPTION (United Nations Access Pass)|
Simple Contribution to the Fees (See Form Below)
|Presentations will be held in english and french. Debates and questions will be organized in english and french. Thank you to use the form at the bottom of the page to subscribe including only for audience.|
|Leading Projects of Education to Science and Citizen Sciences since 1992, and creating 1st Participatory Researches Camps in 2004, the NGO Objective Sciences International have the Special Consultative Status to United Nations. Active in all continents, the NGO organize every year, since 2012, the International Annual Conference on Rights of Nature in United Nations, at which one participate all Governments actives in this domain or interested by these works. The objective of this Conference organized into the heart of the United Nations hemicycle is to allow all the actors and operators in these domains to exchange, meet and share directly and at the largest international level.|
|Interactives Dialogues of the UN and Rights of Nature|
The experts who are solicited annually by the Bureau of the United Nations in charge of the initiative Harmony with Nature, exchange already at national and continental levels (Europe, North America...) following diverse groups of themes. This Conference organised in December permit to work on the results of the High Level Interactive Dialogues that was done, and to prepare the objects of thinking for the next Interactive Dialogues. The one who want to exchange and share their ideas, practices and solutions, at worldwide level, meet at the end of the year for the International Annual Conference organized in United Nations.
Protection of Nature / Legal personality of Nature / Living Beings / Sustainable Development
Several public or associative organizations, and citizens, that are active in the domain of Rights of Nature, federated or organized, at the international level. The main national actors, the federations, and the specific operators, organized presently at the international level, and are called to meet annually at the end of the civil year, at the International Annual Conference on Rights of Nature, at United Nations, in Geneva.
This annual space of sharing results and pooling of skills, allow to the actors of the domain to exchange practices, solutions, ideas, needs.
Your Annual Exchanges Resource
In the following of the national and continental meetings that are organized in each country and continent by the local federation, this International Annual Conference at United Nations allow the actors to implement in consultation, or to inform mutually, of progress and actions they lead during the year, or that they have in project.
The participants at this Conference are:
- Local and regional actors of different countries
- Thematic Actors by disciplines
- Regional or national federations
- Thematic Federations, by disciplines
- Large Institutions of Rights of Nature
- Associations of Defense and Protection of Nature
- Government departments (Environment, Education, Research, Sustainable Development...) and international associations of Ministries
- Specialized Journalists (law, science, environment, education, sustainable development ...)
- UN agencies (UNDP, UNEP ...)
Subjects that are in the agenda of this conference are the axis topics the United Nations Program for Harmony with Nature :
Exchanges between stakeholders of the meeting will happen in dynamic pitches followed by sub-groups you can contribute, in round table between speakers and of course debates with the audience of the Assembly.
Organiser : NGO Objective Sciences International, Geneva
|Mr Thomas EGLI|
GENEVA FORUM at United Nations : www.osi-genevaforum.org
Know more about Thomas EGLI, Founder of Objectif Sciences International, CEO of the GENEVA FORUM
|M Colin ROBERTSON|
Member of the Rights of Nature networks
|Mrs Doris RAGETTLI|
Rights of Mother Earth : https://www.rightsofmotherearth.com/
|Mrs Vanessa HASSON|
Director of MAPAS (Methods to Support Environmental and Social Practices) : http://www.mapas.org.br/
Here the Programme of the 5 days of GENEVA FORUM of December 2022, where are described the days dedicated to the Conference on Rights of Nature for Peace and Sustainable Development Goals.
Official Opening Session - Tuesday 13 December 09:00
Session organised in partnership with Rights of Mother Earth, the Bureau Harmony With Nature of United Nations and Objectif Sciences International.
- Remarks on current situation
- Remarks from the side of the Governmental Representations represented
Presentations currently proposed for 2022
Presentations done in 2021
A UN Declaration for Rights of Mother Earth ORAL PRESENTATION
Humans have rights
Corporations have rights
But Nature is treated as a commodity
With our global petition we are asking the UN to adopt a Universal Declaration of Rights of Mother Earth to complement the Human Rights Declaration.
We are part of Mother Earth and are interrelated with the entire web of life on Earth. It is not possible to honor only the rights of humans without honoring the rights of all species and Mother Earth, without causing a misbalance in the ecosystem.
Please sign and share the global petition for a UN Declaration of Rights of Mother Earth at: https://www.thepetitionsite.com/826/567/703/
Rights of Nature in a nutshell: Under current law, Nature is treated as a commodity and has no legal rights. This loophole in the law contributes greatly to the exploitation and destruction of Mother Earth. Western laws in a way promote and legalize the destruction and harm people inflict on Nature, by considering activities such as mining and industrial pollution as legal.
Why it is more urgent than ever to respect the rights of Nature
Some crucial global boundaries have already been crossed, such as greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and biodiversity loss (we have lost over 60% since 1970). We have destabilised the ecological balance. Climate change and the loss of biodiversity for example, are some of the symptoms. Learn more about the Planetary Boundaries: https://stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries.html
Mrs Doris RAGETTLI, Rights of Mother Earth, Switzerland, www.RightsofMotehrEarth.com
Territory as a victim: Rethinking the right to reparation through Colombian indigenous territories ORAL PRESENTATION
Reparations are a fundamental pillar of Transitional Justice (TJ). They aim to address the needs of the victims who suffered harm and alleviate their suffering in order to achieve durable peace, justice, and reconciliation. Until now, the dominant underlying assumption has been that the victims must necessarily be human beings. Consequently, reparations have been conceived in anthropocentric terms, focusing solely on the needs of and harm to humans.
Colombia is the first country to, in its TJ process, have recognized a non-human element, a territory, as a victim of the internal armed conflict. By doing so, the Colombian peace process embodied indigenous views, transforming territory from a mere object into a legal subject that can suffer harm and is entitled to reparations. This legal recognition challenges the anthropocentric assumptions of the right to reparation and invite us to rethink the categories of harm and reparations, within Colombia and beyond.
Mrs Nina Bries Silva, PhD research in International Law at the European University Institute (EUI)
INTERNATIONAL VIRTUAL COURSE ON NATURE RIGHTS AND THE HARMONY WITH NATURE UNITED NATIONS PROGRAM (HwN UN) ORAL PRESENTATION
A Brazilian team of judges and professors presents the video of the pioneering experience in the world of the virtual "International course Nature’s Rights, theory and practice, and the United Nations Harmony with Nature Program" specially prepared for judges. (https://ead.cjf.jus.br/moodle/)
The course is a joint initiative of the Brazilian Justice System and public universities, based on the Cooperation Agreement signed between the Center for Judicial Studies of the Brazilian Federal Justice Council (CEJ/CJF) and the Federal Universities of the Ceará (UFC), Goiás (UFG) and Santa Catarina (UFSC), to support the United Nations Harmony with Nature Program (HwN UN).
It was organized by Doctor Maria Mercedes Sanchez, coordinator of this UN HwN Program. The course was developed in the virtual environment of the Center for Judicial Studies of the Brazilian Federal Justice Council and the National School for Training and improvement of magistrates (ENFAM), under the coordination of the Judges João Baptista Lazzari (CEJ/CJF) Vladimir Vitovsky dos Santos (ENFAM) Germana de Oliveira Moraes (CEJ/CJF and UFC) and Professors Fernando Antônio Carvalho Dantas (UFG) and Cristiane Derani (UFSC). The tutors were the professors Vanessa Hasson (MAPAS, Geovana Cartaxo (UFC), Adriana Caguana (UASB) and the federal judges Bruno Leonardo Carrá, Gilson Jacobsen, Paulo Afonso Brum Vaz and Simone Schreiber. Now, all of them are experts of United Nations Harmony with Nature Knowledge Network (HwN UN).
From April 22 to October 22, there were 2 webinars, 12 classes and 8 workshops. Forty 40 (forty) experts from all continents did their lectures. At the opening, it took place the second edition of the Webinar "Dialogues between Judicial Courts and the UN Harmony with Nature Program".
The general objectives of training and updating judges to resolve legal demands based on the non-anthropocentric paradigms of Harmony and Rights of Nature and and to multiply the theory and practice about them was successfully achieved.
In addition, in order to make the goal 12.8 of the SDG of the Agenda 2030 more concrete and to promote greater awareness of lifestyles in Harmony with Nature and to achieve greater effectiveness of Nature’s rights : those of Mother Earth and the rights of all living beings, including human rights, the course participants elaborated 20 (twenty) proposals, aimed at national and international entities.
We are pleased to announce that next year, the classes and the lectures of the "International Course Rights of Nature, theory and practice and the United Nations Harmony with Nature Program" will be available in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English on the website of the United Nations Harmony with Nature Program (http://www.harmonywithnatureun.org/).
Mrs Germana MORAES, Professor Geovana CARTAXO and al., CENTER FOR JUDICIAL STUDIES/FEDERAL JUSTICE COUNCIL, Brazil, https://ead.cjf.jus.br/moodle/
Hug our town ORAL PRESENTATION
Abrace a cidade ( “Hug our town”) is a university project related to Environmental Law and people’s Rights to the City. This project’s purpose is to encourage students and members of our society to find solutions for urban and environmental issues in our city and take actions to help on those matters.
The Rights of Nature is a founding principle that guides each action taken by the group.
Leaded by the belief that it is possible for humans to live in harmony with Nature, Abrace a Cidade, in 2019, was able to make contact with one of the most vulnerable communities in the city of Fortaleza and, by interacting with local leaders and residents, conduct activities of social and environmental interest, such as educational workshops, revitalizing needy areas by introducing greener and sustainable small spaces and also collecting seeds to help design a sustainable future of that neighborhood.
Mrs Geovana Maria FREIRE, Samuel Fonseca CARVALHO and Carmelia SUYANE Duarte Alves Leitão, Dean Geovana CARTAXO, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Brazil, www.ufc.br
Rights of nature in freshwater and marine ecosystems REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
This research looks into the emerging global and regional norms on the rights of nature in the context of water ecosystems and identified the common patterns and organizing principles in different countries to determine how these norms can contribute to a more sustainable water governance. Using empirical case studies from the Philippines and Bangladesh, this study describes how these cases from these two countries in the Global South compare with the global norms, how these rights unfold on the ground and the possibilities that these cases may offer to wider water governance framework.
Mr Rhomir YANQUILING, IHE Institute of Water Education, Netherlands, https://www.un-ihe.org/
Creating Novel Ecosystems for Urban Areas: The Innovative 3R Freshwater Mangrove Biotechnology based on Ecological Engineering for Environmental SDGs REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
Ecological engineering using freshwater mangrove has potential in addressing a problem of local lake wastewater and, at the same time, global issues such as water pollution and its health concerns, natural habitat loss, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions as well as typically unattractive aesthetic appearance of urban areas. The biotechnology turns the problem of wastewater flowing into lake from adjacent restaurants into solutions including use of nutrient rich water as a fertilizer for smaller macrophytes and mangrove trees in a novel urban ecosystem. This 3R freshwater mangrove biotechnology comprises hardware (blue component, green component, and brown component) and software or processes (biotransformation, carbon sequestration, waste recycling, and enhancing ecological trophic chain). The waste organic load helps increase biomass accumulation and carbon fixation (sequestration) of mangrove trees. In addition, freshwater mangroves enhance microbial communities responsible for bioconversion of organic pollutants in water and sediments.
This research will create opportunities in urban areas in terms of (1) a ‘wastes to riches’ approach in landscaping, (ii) cheaper food production within urban areas, (iii) combating climate change and ecological crises, (iv) providing health and well-being to community and nature alike, (v) natural processes to create a foundation for healthier habitats for people and wildlife, (vi) providing business opportunities. Therefore, this 3R biotechnology can be an additional perspective to urban planning for green and sustainable urbanization to achieve sustainable development goals. This can be proven by the positive improvement of water quality of the study site for 3 years along with the estimation of the potentially sequestered carbon of this novel ecosystem of freshwater mangroves which is almost similar to coastal mangroves. These are among the few potential contribution areas by the proposed method of enhancing mangrove ecosystems which potentially inform urban planning through the integration of ecosystem-based development of cities.
Mrs Arlene GONZALES, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, www.ait.ac.th
Eco Krathong , the cultural SDG Product from natural for friendly Environments in Ecological REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
According to the research topics : The bakery loop for tomorrow, of which was presented at Geneva Forum 2017 (https://www.osi-genevaforum.org/Rights-of-Nature-for-Peace-and-Development.html), Switzerland and Eco Bakery for Friendly Environments in Ecological - case study from Thailand.
TOJSAT The Online Journal Of Science And Technology in July 2018 at Harvard University of which mentions to the contributions the practice SDG 2030 topic 14 is about "Life below water" to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development to complete achievement in economic, social and especially in environmental.
Those were mentions the “Loy Krathong Festival” that is the key cultural in Thailand traditional yearly festival that has created the water pollution for long times. it’s has applied the solution by SDG concept by produced them from natural material modification to conserve the rivers and oceans, safe for the life below and friendly environment in ecological along with culture conservation in the same time. They have tested in several rivers, oceans and lakes around the world, we found the results of statistical has accepted the hypothesis at level with significance.
For this research, the conduct study has focused on a new food ingredient for eco Krathong. It’s made from Tapioca starch which could be easily found in the local markets , that can be decomposed naturally in the water. It can be food for underwater animals such as fish, turtles, jellyfish, shrimp ,plankton. and aquatic animals such as seagulls, egrets, pigeons, sparrows and other birds. It is the most biodegradable decomposition Krathong in just a few hours when placed in the water. Krathong texture is made from Tapioca starch like bread, which has a faster decomposition rate and high amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to decompose organic matter.
To ensure the products efficiency, the experimental research has test in rivers and sea in Thailand. The results of statistical of water qualities has accepted the hypothesis at level with significance analyzed by laboratories.
Therefore the Eco Krathong , the cultural SDG Product from natural for friendly Environments in Ecological, can be optional to practice professional, which has supported the sustainable development goal 2030 : Goal 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources (River) for sustainable developments. It is a solution to the problem of waste water that is affected by traditions due to cultural inheritance. Along with preserving Thai culture inherited from the ancestor’s time in Loy Krathong Festival to pay respect to the river that has nourished Thai cultural life for decades at the same time.
Mr Pathawit CHONGSERMSIRISAKUL and Dr. Siripen IAMURAI, SiPa Research Organization, Thailand, https://www.facebook.com/people/Siripen-and-Pathawits-Research-Citing-and-References/100063519369860/?ref=py_c
Nature Rights: The Indian Experience REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
Laws have to be atleast a step ahead of the times in which they exist, lest they become obsolete, and Earth Laws are no exception. Although Earth Laws or Rights of Nature have carved a niche for itself in a relatively short span of time, various jurisdictions have faced many a problem in properly implementing it - which in turn warrants a relook.
By highlighting the Indian experience in re reading into law Nature Rights, the paper tries to delve into the hurdles that exist in its recognition and implementation, and aims at charting a new path whereby communitarian practices and customs, with better recognition and protection by law, can help foster this new line of jurisprudence.
Mr Manjeri Subin SUNDER RAJ, UN Harmony with Nature, India, http://www.lien-organisme.com
From Earth Jurisprudence to the Whole Legal System : Social Ecology and the Relational Approach to Law REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
This presentation is based on the question : What does Earth Jurisprudence mean our legal systems as a whole ? Earth Jurisprudence and Rights of Nature are vitally important, but primarily relate to relationships between humans and the rest of Nature. Yet we cannot transform only the part of a system, and nor can we address any ecological problems without addressing the social systems causing these problems. By combining Earth Jurisprudence with other ideas in a holistic paradigm, such as Jennifer Nedelsky’s relational approach to law or Capra and Luisi’s Systems View’ or Murray Bookchin’s social ecology, we can develop ideas about transforming our legal systems in their entirety. This presentation will look at developing a core conception of how we understand humans and how we understand law which expands from Earth Jurisprudence to the entirety of our socio-ecological relationships.
The fight against environmental crimes in international law : reality or fiction ? REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
Faced with global warming and the multiplication of natural disasters, climate advocates do not hesitate to point the finger at the responsibility of States as well as transnational corporations whose behavior in relation to industrial and economic activities is deemed inadequate with the international obligation to protect the environment, some facts are even qualified as crimes against the environment engaging in this sense the criminal responsibility of the alleged perpetrators of these crimes.
If the notion of criminal liability in environmental matters seems cumbersome to some, it is nevertheless important to accept that it is the cornerstone of a strong and effective environmental law.
In the absence of binding international law, and in the face of the refusal of some to integrate the notion of criminal liability for environmental crimes into international law, all attempts to do so outside of a binding legal framework will have no effect on reducing environmental crime. Even worse, the reliance on ISO standards, despite their great importance and impact, risks dethroning the role of international law and replacing it with lesser standards of environmental protection. Therefore, the ISO standards as well as the concept of corporate social responsibility must be supports to international law and not rules that replace it.
Mr Ibrahim BESSAT and Aziza HAMDI, Association pour la protection de la dignité humaine-APDH, France
OSI DRONE CONNEXION REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
Support mobile au service de projets environnementaux.
Mise au point de drones durables et de protocoles adaptés aux contraintes terrain et aux besoins des projet de recherche.
Mr Stephane RODE, ONG Objectif Sciences International - OSI DRONE CONNEXION, France, www.osi-ngo.org
Universe ORAL PRESENTATION
In this lecture, we will talk about the different methods of detecting exoplanets, particularly the photometry that we learned to master during the OSI Star Finder stay.
We also quickly saw the technical terms of astrophotography, the different instruments and the types of objects that can be photographed in the sky.
Mr Mickaêl FRANDON, Maël TORRE-GLASSON, and Tristan VALENTINO, NGO Objectif Sciences International (OSI), France, https://www.osi-univers.org/
Food security indicators in deltaic and coastal research: a scoping review POSTER PRESENTATION
Deltaic and coastal regions are often strategically important both from local and regional perspectives. While deltas are known to be bread baskets of the world, delta inhabitants often face the risk of food and nutritional insecurity. These risks are highly exacerbated by the impacts of climate and environmental change. While numerous regional studies examined the prevalence and the determinants of food security in specific delta and coastal regions, there is still lack of a systematic analysis on the most widely used by scientist food security indicators. In order to fill this gap, a systematic review was carried out using Covidence, a Cochrane adopted systematic review processing software. Papers included in the review were selected from the SCOPUS, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest and Google Scholar databases. Both scientific papers and grey literature (e.g. reports by international organizations) were considered. The results were analyzed by food security components (access, availability, quality and strategy) and by world regions. Suggestions for further food security, nutrition and health research as well as policy-related implication are also discussed.
Mrs Sylvia SZABO, Indrajit Pal, Seree Park and Ms. Thilini Navaratne, Dongguk University, Department of Social Welfare Counselling, College of Future Convergence, South Korea, and Department of Development and Sustainability, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, Republic of Korea, www.dongguk.edu
Restoring Relationships Between People and the Earth: Environment, Politics and Governance ORAL PRESENTATION - ABSENT
Political, economic, social and cultural regeneration is an essential condition for the regeneration of natural and built environments. Earth recovery and mankind recovery are complementary aspects and should be dealt with simultaneously, in space and time, for their mutual support.
Environmental problems should be defined through an integrated, ecosystem approach: nature restoration cannot be achieved without human restoration. New spaces for enlightened participation and discussion should be opened in the socio-cultural learning niches, both in the academia and in society in general. Grappling with the political, economic and cultural contexts will be a key factor to unlocking more of the potential impact of these efforts.
Mr André Francisco PILON, University of São Paulo / International Academy of Science, Brazil, https://www5.usp.br/english/institutional/
Thinking and Acting in a Disrupted World : Governance, Environment and People ORAL PRESENTATION - ABSENT
The asymmetry of political and economic power between common people and corporations has led to natural devastation, biodiversity loss, precarious housing, lack of sanitation, fatal epidemics, high levels of crime and violence, with severe environmental, political, economic and social impacts. Changing the paradigms of development, growth, power, wealth, work and freedom embedded into the political, technological, economic and educational institutions ; requires the development of institutional capacity, judicial neutrality, informational transparency, social spaces for civic engagement and enlightened political participation.This includes conservation units, the media, faith leaders, advocates, experts, decision makers, activists, political leaders, organisations, groups and communities. Earth and People retrieval (regeneration) should be dealt with simultaneously, in space and time ; since they depend on each other : problems and the contexts in which they occur should be re-interpreted and restructured through an ecosystem lens, thus altering the ways to address them. An ecological civilization cares for the natural and built environments, the cultural heritage, the collective bonds, education, health, ethics, aesthetics, equity and justice. New socio-cultural learning niches could generate awareness, interpretation and understanding beyond established stereotypes, from a thematic (“what”), an epistemic (“how”) and a strategic (policies) point of view. Thinking of this moment as an opportunity for a Great Reset and implementing long-awaited infrastructure and systemic change in areas such as inclusion, sustainability and innovation, an ecosystem theoretical and practical approach is posited to elicit the events, cope with consequences and contribute to change (potential outputs).
In this sense, advocacy, communication, public policies, research and teaching programmes would,
1) define the problems in the core of the “boiling pot”, instead of reducing them to the bubbles of the surface (fragmented issues, reduced academic formats, segmented policies, effects) ;
2) consider, as donors and recipients, all dimensions being in the world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), assessing their deficits and assets, as they combine to elicit the events and organize to change ;
3) promote the singularity of (identity, proper characteristics) and the reciprocity (mutual support) between all dimensions, in view of their complementarity and dynamic equilibrium ;
4) prepare the transition to an ecosystem model of culture, for consistency, effectiveness and endurance.
Mr André Francisco PILON, University of São Paulo / International Academy of Science, Brazil, http://www5.usp.br/english/?lang=en
Factors Affecting Global Fisheries and Aquaculture Trade: A Global Panel Regression Analysis ORAL PRESENTATION - ABSENT
Fish and seafood are one of the most internationally traded cultured and wild food commodities (Tveterås et al., 2012), and their production has grown rapidly in the last decades, with the bulk coming from aquaculture (FAO, 2018). The contribution of fishery activities to national economies is multifaceted. Aside from supplying food and contributing to the gross domestic product (GDP), the fishery sector also provides livelihoods for local fishers and processors. It is also a source of hard currency and boosts government revenues through fisheries agreements and taxes (FAO, 2014). The growing aquaculture activities provided the means to increase overall fish production to feed the world’s population, enhanced employment opportunities in the food sector, absorbed fishers displaced from capture fishing, augmented regional economic growth; and provided a means to improve foreign exchange through international trade (Subasinghe et al., 2009; OECD, 2010).
In 2014, global export of fish, crustaceans, and molluscs reached a historical peak in value of US$146 billion (FAO, 2016). Developing countries export 56 per cent of all fish and fish products, while developed countries and transition economies account for 44 per cent (FAO, 2016a). UNCTAD (2016) projects that developing countries will dominate fish export by 2035 (UNCTAD, 2016). Global fish supply per capita reached a record high of 20 kg in 2014 (FAO, 2016), meeting the global demand driven by rising income and urbanization. This contribution is expected to continue to grow through enhanced productivity and modernization, expansion and intensification, and increasing economic and geographic access and availability to nutritious farmed aquatic products.
While almost all the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and many associated targets are relevant to aquaculture development, aquaculture’s role in the SDG achievements has not yet been clearly identified or communicated, resulting in relatively weak inclusion in sustainability dialogues. It is therefore imperative to identify potential socioeconomic factors in promoting business ideas behind aquaculture systems without compromising the environment even as this sector increases its contribution to food security and socioeconomic welfare. Addressing the demand of farmed fish and other aquatic-based products means utilizing more land to expand the operations. This needs an analysis on the potential impact in the environment and the contribution to the total volume and value of production, import, and export of these products. If aquaculture technology being utilized does not bring alarming effects to the environment and balances the global trading ecosystem while alleviating the economic status of the local farmers and processors, then the ultimate goal for sustainable development will be achieved.
Given this background, the present study aims to identify the effects of the socioeconomic factors on aquaculture and fishery production and trade globally at the country level. The annual data were collected from FAO (2021a, 2021b), FAOSTAT (2021) and World Bank (2021a, 2021b) for the decade from 2010 to 2019 for 217 countries. The outcome variables include the volume and value of production, import, and export of farmed aquatic organisms, aquatic-based products, and fishery commodities. The independent socioeconomic variables include the GDP, GDP per capita, ratio of working age population to nonworking population, and percentage of graduates from tertiary education in allied field related to fisheries and aquaculture. In addition, the total coastline and aquatic land use are included as covariates. The study will also determine the land use relevant to fisheries activities and aquaculture operations at national, regional, and global level.The panel regression method was employed to estimate the effects of the socioeconomic variables.
Preliminary results suggest that the total volume and value of production, including the import and export of farmed aquatic organisms and aquatic-based products are significantly associated with the total land use relevant to the fisheries and aquaculture operations. This also shows that the trading of fishery and aquaculture products has a notable effect on the GDP and GDP per capita in some nations, thus alleviating the socioeconomic status of local fishers and processors. The study concludes with several policy and programmatic recommendations at national and regional levels.
FAO. (2016). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016 (SOFIA): Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. FAO. https://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/2c8bcf47-2214-4aeb-95b0-62ddef8a982a/
FAO. (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018: Meeting the sustainable development goals. FAO. http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/I9540EN/
FAO (2021a). Fisheries & Aquaculture—Fishery Statistical Collections—Global Aquaculture Production. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-aquaculture-production/en;
FAO (2021b). Fisheries & Aquaculture—Fishery Statistical Collections—Global Fish Trade and Processed Products Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-commodities-production/en
FAOSTAT. (2021). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/RL
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2014). The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture 2014: Opportunities and challenges. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
OECD. (2010). Globalisation in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. Globalisation in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges, 1–157. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264074927-en
Subasinghe, R., Soto, D., & Jia, J. (2009). Global aquaculture and its role in sustainable development. Reviews in Aquaculture, 1(1), 2–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-5131.2008.01002.x
Tveterås, S., Asche, F., Bellemare, M. F., Smith, M. D., Guttormsen, A. G., Lem, A., Lien, K., & Vannuccini, S. (2012). Fish Is Food—The FAO’s Fish Price Index. PLOS ONE, 7(5), e36731. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036731
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2016). Trade in sustainable fisheries and aquaculture. In United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Trade and Environment Review 2016 (pp. 21–62). UN. https://doi.org/10.18356/6a19440a-en
World Bank (2021). Education Statistics—All Indicators | DataBank. (2021). Retrieved October 15, 2021, fromhttps://databank.worldbank.org/source/education-statistics-%5E-all-indicators/Type/TABLE/preview/on#
World Bank (2021b). World Development Indicators | DataBank. (2021). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators?savedlg=1&l=en
M Jaynos CORTES, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, http://www.ait.ac.th
« Enjeux de la gestion de la terre et Développement Durable en Afrique ». ORAL PRESENTATION - ABSENT
<docNNNN|left> La gestion durable de la terre ou la gouvernance foncière, maîtrisée de façon équilibrée favorise dans certaines conditions le développement durable. Le foncier, à travers son caractère social et ses retombées économiques et écologiques, influence sans nul doute le processus de développement économique et de développement durable. Pourtant actuellement, c’est tout le contraire qui se passe en Afrique où le droit foncier est le lieu d’expression d’un pluralisme juridique ayant des impacts incontestables sur le développement du continent. La pluralité des règles régissant le foncier se traduit concrètement par la coexistence de règles de nature et d’objectifs différents. Celles-ci sont, d’une une part les règles de gestion coutumière de la terre et des ressources naturelles, qui sont séculaires et qui jouissent d’une très grande légitimité auprès des populations rurales. Ces normes continuent, de fait, de régenter le foncier en milieu rural et même parfois en milieu urbain. Elles sont porteuses des spécificités socioculturelles dans lesquels la majeure partie des africains subsahariens se reconnaît. Ces valeurs ainsi légitimées font de la résistance depuis la période coloniale aux règles modernes de gestion du foncier.
D’autre part, officiellement, la vision africaine de la Terre est toute autre. Elle est constituée de lois modernes ou de principes issus principalement du système foncier de la période coloniale. . La loi foncière elle-même n’échappe pas à cette référence à la coutume. Bien au contraire, la matière foncière peut être considérée comme le terrain de prédilection de la coutume. Le foncier Africain a en effet un visage de JANUS se traduisant par la superposition des normes traditionnelles et des normes modernes. Cependant, cette juxtaposition n’est pas automatiquement synonyme de contradictions, mais elle a tendance à affaiblir le foncier en Afrique dans la mesure où elle instaure une très grande insécurité juridique notamment vis-à-vis des populations et des investisseurs étrangers que le pays s’applique pourtant à attirer.et cela même si nous sommes conscients que cette superposition a ses revers.
Vue sur un autre prisme, la superposition et la coexistence de règles modernes et traditionnelles doit être prise comme un facteur contribuant à démontrer la richesse du droit foncier africain. Celui-ci peut être un pilier qui va de l’exploitation accrue des ressources naturelles au développement de l’agriculture à large échelle en passant par les infrastructures devraient entraîner des bouleversements qui, si on n’y prend garde, pourraient affecter de manière significative et positive la qualité de vie de nombreux africains, et entrainer par là une gestion concertée de la terre qui respectent les spécificités socio culturelles africaines. Ceux-ci se traduisent par l’émergence de nouvelles pratiques suis generis qui ne trouvent véritablement leur essence ni dans l’une ni dans l’autre de ces catégories de normes. Cette dialectique se complexifie encore depuis l’apparition, suite à la crise alimentaire et énergétique de 2008, du phénomène d’accaparement des terres et des ressources naturelles par les pays riches mais également par certains pays émergents.
Véritables menaces à la sécurité alimentaire, au droit à l’alimentation et aux ressources naturelles, ces accaparements qu’on doit qualifier d’ailleurs de fonciers, entraînent un bouleversement des normes constituant le régime foncier de même qu’ils impliquent une nouvelle perception de celui-ci. Cette dernière est exclusivement financière. Ainsi, la terre, l’eau et les ressources naturelles qui devraient être inaliénables font désormais l’objet d’enjeux économiques mondiaux.
La marchandisation de la terre marque une nouvelle ère où les enjeux fonciers sont perçus sous leur seul angle économique. Ce qui tranche clairement avec les visions foncières qui prédominaient jusque-là, à savoir celle officielle moderne et celle traditionnelle. En effet, dans la vision traditionnelle, la terre n’est pas un « bien » commercialisable. Dans la vision moderne, la terre est certes un bien dans le commerce, mais sa commercialisation n’avait encore pas atteint une très grande échelle comme c’est le cas aujourd’hui. Quelle option l’Afrique, notamment au sud du Sahara fait-elle ? La terre est-elle un bien, une marchandise ? Ou la terre est-elle une ressource communautaire ?
Tiraillée entre passé et modernité quant à la gestion de la terre d’un côté, et de l’autre,entre l’envie d’atteindre l’autosuffisance alimentaire et une prospérité économique, quelle qualité de développement l’Afrique peut-elle espérer atteindre aujourd’hui ? Autrement dit, quel type de foncier pour quel développement ? Les différentes contradictions qui émaillent la gestion opportune du foncier africain e la vision développement qui sous-tend cette gestion sont pertinentes à cet égard.
Mots clés : Régime Foncier ; Droits Foncier ; Développement durable ; Tradition ; Modernité
Mr Jean Paul TAM, Ministère des Domaines, et des Affaires Foncières-Diplomate, Cameroon
PANGOLIN RIGHTS OF SURVIVAL UNDER HUMAN IMPACTS : THREATS AND TRAFFICKING POSTER PRESENTATION - ABSENT
Pangolin are harmless, easygoing and toothless mammal of Africa and Asia having a body covered with horny scales and a long snout for feeding on ants and termites. Pangolins look like reptiles but they are actually mammals because they are wholly-covered in scales from head to tail.
These Pangolin scales provide protections to the animal when under threat from predators in the wild. As part of their defense tactics Pangolins curls in to a tight ball or cycle like and use the very tick and shape scaled tails to defend themselves when attacked, it does this in self-defense. During this process a pangolin will cover its head with its front legs like Kangaroo, exposing its scales to any potential predator. If touched or grabbed it will roll up completely into a ball as earlier said, while the sharp scales on the tail can be used to lash out.
The name “Pangolin” was coined out of the Malay language word “Pengguling” meaning the one that rolls up, equivalent to peng- agentive prefix + guling roll up or around; so called from its habit of curling into a ball when threatened. The Malay language is an Austronesian language officially spoken in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore and unofficially spoken in East Timor and parts of Thailand by approximately population of 300 million people. So the Malay people first called this animal pengguling in their language because of its characteristics of cycling when under attacked and Pangolin was later known with this name across the globe. Pangolins are the ultimate underdog: harmless to humans and friendly to the ecosystem, yet poached and sold by the thousands each year and while its demands are on the increase geometrically each year.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PANGOLIN:
1. On the average Pangolin Males can grow up to 55 inches long while the Pangolin females can grow up to 50 inches long. Fully grown Pangolin can be Up to 70 pounds.
2. Pangolins have large, curved claws that they use for excavating ant and termite nests, as well as for pulling bark off trees and logs to find their insect prey.
3. Pangolins are solitary and active mostly at night. Most live on the ground, but some, like the black-bellied pangolin, also climb trees.
4. Physically pangolin is marked by large, hardened, overlapping, plate-like scales, which are soft on baby pangolins, but get hardens as they grow older. These Pangolin body armored like scales are made of keratin, the same material from which human being fingernails and tetrapod claws are made, and are structurally and compositionally very different from the scales of reptiles like crocodiles, alligators or dinosaur scales.
TYPES OF PANGOLIN:
Presently eight different species of pangolins are known to man out of which four different species are found in Asia; these includes the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Philippine pangolin (Manis culionensis), Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) and the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). These Asian species are found in China, Indian, Bangladesh, Nepal and some few islands of the Philippines including Palawan and the Culion islands among some other very few countries where it lives in Asia. The Asian pangolins are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) as critically endangered species.
The other four are the African species and these includes the Black-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), White-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground pangolin (Smutsia gigantea) and the Temminck’s Ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii). The World listed two of the African species as vulnerable while the other two including the White-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis) and the Giant pangolin (Smutsia gigantea) as Endangered.
SOME BASIC FACTS ABOUT PANGOLIN:
1. Pangolin regulates the termite population which if left unchecked has the potentials of destroying crops and houses.
2. Pangolin helps in the fight against climate change as it restricts termites from destroying and reducing the population of the wild trees which absorbs greater percentage of the Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air.
3. Pangolins save us millions of Dollars ($) a year in pest destruction because Pangolins play a critical role in their ecosystems. They provide the earth with all-natural pest control and are fantastic tenders of soil, and they do these things simply through their everyday behaviors.
4. Pangolin provides foods to the hunters not poachers.
5. Generally, Pangolins have an extremely important ecological role of regulating insect populations. One single pangolin can consume around 70 million ants and termites per year. If pangolins go extinct, there would be a cascading impact on the environment.
6. Sources of income for governments and private sectors keeping reserves for tourists.
Mr Babagana ABUBAKAR, Kanuri Development Association, Nigeria
Peace, Development and Humans rights POSTER PRESENTATION - ABSENT
<docNNNN|left> souligner l’importance que revêt le respect des droits fondamentaux dans la construction de la paix, il importe de mettre en évidence le rôle et la fonction des conventions internationales s’appliquant aux droits humains et au développement des organes internationaux chargés de leur application. Le scepticisme manifesté à cet égard par l’opinion publique n’est pas justifié et ne s’explique que par le défaut d’information et aussi par l’indifférence de la presse et des médias lorsqu’il s’agit des institutions internationales et des organisations non gouvernementales se consacrant à leur promotion. Trop souvent on oublie que 67 instruments internationaux et régionaux, conventions générales et spécialisées recouvrent le domaine de la protection des droits humains. Certes tous les États membres des Nations unies n’ont pas ratifié tous ces instruments, mais l’entrecroisement des signatures assure suffisamment le tissu des engagements interétatiques et permet leur mise en œuvre. Pour la première fois, dans l’histoire des sociétés humaines, des juridictions supranationales condamnant des États pour avoir violé les droits fondamentaux des hommes et des femmes, mettent fin à des siècles de toute puissance étatique basée sur les principes de souveraineté et de non ingérence dans les affaires intérieures de l’État. Un deuxième motif de la connaissance difficile ou imparfaite du développement des droits humains dans le respect de la dignité de la personne tient à ce que le droit international public n’est plus le seul domaine des politiques, mais qu’il est, depuis 1948 en particulier, conçu et mis en œuvre par les juristes et les institutions internationales ayant des compétences et pouvoirs, au-delà de ceux des gouvernements et diplomates.
La complexité des mécanismes de protection d’organisation économique du développement, la multiplicité des problèmes d’application font que ce champ conventionnel devient «domaine réservé» des juristes et des économistes internationaux. Il en résulte une compréhension plus difficile par l’opinion et une communication imparfaite car une telle œuvre paraît hermétique et n’intéresse presque pas les médias.
Mrs Nadege Carine TIEKOUE KEUNGNI, Réseau Camerounais des Organisations des Droits de l’Homme, Cameroon
The Impact of Agro-Industrial Rice Cultivation : Case Study of Challenges Facing Rice Farmers in Upper Nun Valley Development Authority, Cameroon POSTER PRESENTATION - ABSENT
Agriculture is considered as a potential sector to revive the Cameroonian’s economy as well as it has been hailed by the Head of State in his message to the Nation as a crucial technique for the economic vision planned for the year 2035.
This project depicts the impact of Agro-industrial1 rice cultivation in Cameroon. In addition, it illustrates the challenges facing rice farmers in Upper Nun Valley Development Authority (UNVDA).
Moreover, the finding of this research will be significant for foreign direct investment in the Cameroonian’s rice sector as well as important concepts in business management.
Mr Joseph ZAMBO MOOH, ETS AGRICAM, Cameroon
PROTECTING NATURE BY GIVING IT LEGAL RIGHTS POSTER PRESENTATION - ABSENT
In 2020, during the pandemic and all attention was on Covid, my NGO called Social Gospel Movement embarked on a campaign to draw awareness to acknowledge our dependence on nature and the importance of living in harmony with nature.
At Social Gospel Ministry (SGM), we recognize species and ecosystems not as a resource for human depletion to humans but as allies in our ecosystem
In 2020 February, SGM pushed for the legislation for the Ghanaian Government to enact rights for the river bodies in Ghana, which has been destroyed by operators of illegal mining popularly known as GALEMSEY. These illegal miners use chemicals that are poisonous to water bodies, which serve as drinking water to some local communities. There have been serious implications for these activities.
Subsequently, communities like Amenfi-East, Tarkwa Nsuaem, Prestea Huni-Valley District have established bills of rights that establish the right to local self-government, the right to a healthy environment, the right to clean water, and protection for the local environment. This proves that nature is a property
SGM has been educating the other school of thought who don’t believe the Rights of Nature Approach and over the years and we have been vindicated, as water bodies have been cleared since the termination of illegal mining and water-related diseases like cholera, malaria and its prevalence has been drastically reduced.
At Social Gospel Ministry we pride ourself we this achievement we are ready to educate the world in taking the same course we are on.
Mr Emmanuel NYARKO APPIAH, Social Gospel Ministry, Ukraine
THE RIGHTS OF TREES POSTER PRESENTATION - ABSENT
Timber Rise Foundation (TRF)
As the executive director of timber rise foundation. In February 2021 I was promoting the awareness of the deforestation process which Ghana is facing currently.
A thoroughly filled analysis was done in a community facing deforestation. My team approach with the local government to initiate laws to protect these trees notably among them are Sapele, Mahogany, Wawa…
This behavior has been going on for decades resulting in serious deforestation in these communities (Benso, Amanten, and Esikuma)
In the Benso community, the unregulated cutting down of trees in community has subsequently caused severe flooding, displacing about 3000 inhabitants causing loss of lives, loss of farmlands, and the outbreak of waterborne disease
As the Executive Director of the TRF, I approached the local government to innate laws protecting the right of these Timbers.
After these laws were initiated, my team took it upon itself to a partnership with the national civil authority to educate and inform the locals who involve themselves in these activities.
With a series of education in the communities individual who was involved in these activities have deserted from it. Since then, there has been a significant growing back of the forest.
We at the TRF are proud to have been involved in the afforestation of these communities.
We are prepared to educate NGOs, governments in undertaking this same approach in their countries and communities to save Mother Earth.
Mr Samuel TUNI, Student, Ukraine, https://www.tdmu.edu.ua/en/
Mangroves, Charcoal, and Trade: Implications for Achieving the SDGs REMOTE ORAL PRESENTATION
Mangrove forests are among the pristine ecosystems in the tropical region that provide a crucial role either in its local area or in a global context. Among the significantly highlighted functions of the mangrove forest is its role in fighting climate change. Mangroves are the best carbon absorber in the world with a capacity to store up to 10 times more carbon per hectare than forests on land. Mangroves account for approximately 3% of carbon sequestered by the world’s tropical forests, while they occupy less than 1% of the total area of tropical forests. Mangroves are currently being advanced as an essential component of climate change strategies such as REDD+ and Blue Carbon. However, they are under threat nearly everywhere because of human activities. Major threats are activities involving land use change and direct resource harvesting of mangrove forest resources. One of the commonly extracted materials is mangrove wood for fuel (i.e., charcoal). It is less known that charcoal from mangroves has a very high market demand not only locally but also in global markets. Mangrove charcoal is highly preferred as it burns longer, emits less smoke, and has no odor. Historically, mangrove protection and conservation has long been advocated but the problem of degradation and loss remains a persistent problem to date. This study examined the movement of mangrove charcoal in the global markets and investigated the drivers of such livelihood on importing mangrove charcoal.
In Southeast Asia (SEA), charcoal production for export is conspicuous, especially in Indonesia, Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand, and products are exported to Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, and some European countries. Some irregular cases were also uncovered such as the cross-border trade between Thailand and Myanmar. Thailand’s case is uniquely different from the other exporting countries as it does not use its own mangroves for charcoal production since the government banned this practice in the 1990’s. Myanmar supplies the semi-processed charcoal and sends it to Thailand for further processing, which is then exported to the major importing countries. This cross-border trade persists as it is illegal to produce charcoal in Myanmar for commercial use. It is estimated that the annual average value of exported mangrove charcoal is USD 10 million though it can give even par when the long-term valuation of the services is estimated.
While mangrove forests are considered as protected areas, lack of enforcement and oversight in several countries in SEA remains a challenge. Moreover, poverty incidences in charcoal producers are the main driver of mangrove dependent livelihoods despite their awareness of consequences. Other pressing issues such as corruption and lack of human capacity also drive mangrove trade despite being illegal in many countries. In Malaysia and Indonesia, charcoal production from mangroves is a recognized industry with a law indicating specific regulated areas for wood harvesting. In securing export permits, businesses have to clearly declare the source and characteristic of the woods used for charcoal export. However, there is no existing export regulation yet that would moderate the quantity of charcoal for export. The major concern over the industry is the risk of losing large areas of mature mangrove forests as mangrove trees take 30 years to reach full maturity; and harvest for charcoal production can deplete mature mangrove stand at a fast rate.
Exporting mangrove charcoal obviously leads to losses of ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests. Among the major concerns is the collapse of global carbon sink and the accelerated release of GHGs into the atmosphere during the process of charcoal production. In addition, local communities confirmed that they are experiencing localized climate change, reduced marine resources catch and wind impacts from the sea are more intense. Mangrove resources management would contribute to the attainment of SD targets for the environmental and developmental indicators. It is in this regard that more research is required to better account for firewood extraction for charcoal toward informed policy decisions and sustainability related to charcoal industry.
Mrs Arlene GONZALES, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, www.ait.ac.th
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